Sim Castle

PhD Student

Current Appointments:

Previous Appointments:

MSc Integrated Product Design, TU Delft, 2016
BSc Product Design, University of Sussex, 2013

Interests: synthetic biology, genetic circuits, gene regulatory networks, evolvability, genotype-phenotype map, complexity science, adaptive systems, philosophy of science, philosophy of engineering


Product designer turned mechanical engineer turned synthetic biologist. I’m interested in developing biological design methods that account for and exploit evolution. In particular, I am applying principles of evolvability to genetic circuit design through experimental and computational study of their genotype-phenotype maps.

All publications

Engineering is evolution: a perspective on design processes to engineer biology
Castle S.D., Stock M., Gorochowski T.E.
Nature Communications 15, 3640, 2024.

Towards an engineering theory of evolution
Castle S.D., Grierson C.S., Gorochowski T.E.
Nature Communications 12, 3326, 2021.